Chloroquine resistant malaria countries

Discussion in 'Health Canada Drug Database' started by ITB, 13-Mar-2020.

  1. Aris Guest

    Chloroquine resistant malaria countries


    Specifically in Mopani, Vhembe, and Waterberg district municipalities of Limpopo Province; Ehlanzeni district municipality in Mpumalanga Province; and Umknanyakude in Kwazulu-Natal Province. Present in the municipality of Tapanahony in Sipaliwini Province. Rare cases in Brokopondo Province, Marowijne Province, and Boven Saramacca municipality in Sipaliwini Province. Factors that affect local malaria transmission patterns can change rapidly and from year to year, such as local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection.

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    Chloroquine is a previously cheap and effective antimalarial agent whose loss to resistance resulted in more than doubling of malaria-related mortality in malaria-endemic countries. Recently, chloroquine sensitivity is re-emerging among Plasmodium falciparum parasites which gives hope for malaria control and treatment efforts globally. Although chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum predominates in Africa, it is found in combination with chloroquine-sensitive P. vivax malaria in South America and Asia. Resistance of P. vivax to chloroquine has been confirmed only in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Chloroquine resistance CQR was first reported in Southeast Asia and South America and has now spread to the vast majority of malaria-endemic countries. pfcrt was recently identified as a candidate gene for CQR after the analysis of a genetic cross between a chloroquine-resistant clone Dd2, Indochina and a chloroquine-sensitive clone HB3, Honduras 5 – 7.

    Several medications are available for chemoprophylaxis. When deciding which drug to use, consider specific itinerary, length of trip, cost of drug, previous adverse reactions to antimalarials, drug allergies, and current medical history. Information in these tables is updated regularly.4.

    Chloroquine resistant malaria countries

    Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures., Malaria - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book Travelers' Health CDC

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  5. Abstract. Between 19 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa. Despite the intensification of resistance during the last 2 decades, chloroquine remains in 2000 the first-line treatment for malaria in most of these countries.

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    Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria was first identified in 1989 among Australians living in or traveling to Papua New Guinea. P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, Ethiopia, and Madagascar. Isolated reports have suggested chloroquine-resistance P. vivax in other countries and regions, but further evaluation is needed. Now, chloroquine resistant forms of P. vivax are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. For destinations where chloroquine-sensitive malaria is present, in addition to mosquito avoidance measures, the many effective prophylaxis options include chloroquine, atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and tafenoquine. In countries where there is predominantly P. vivax, primaquine is an additional option.

     
  6. anpekonsk Moderator

    Background: The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. PLAQUENIL hydroxychloroquine sulfate Label Plaquenil Toxicity - My Take on New Ocular Screening Guidelines for Plaquenil RheumNow.
     
  7. lualva XenForo Moderator

    Chloroquine - Wikipedia Chloroquine is also a lysosomotropic agent, meaning it accumulates preferentially in the lysosomes of cells in the body. The pK a for the quinoline nitrogen of chloroquine is 8.5, meaning it is about 10% deprotonated at physiological pH as calculated by the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

    Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures.