, a parasite of Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) monkeys, has been documented as a cause of human infections and some deaths in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female mosquito. Hydroxychloroquine histamine How do i get off the drug plaquenil Narrative review on chloroquine resistance reversal among Plasmodium falciparum parasites by Frosch et al. 2 focused only on African countries and did not provide aggregate extent of chloroquine resistance reversal. Studies have investigated possibility of chemically altering chloroquine resistance which is mainly through Chloroquine resistance was first identified in East Africa in the late 1970s 3, 46, and countries in this region were the first to change their first line treatments from CQ to other antimalarial drugs. South Africa was the first country to recommend artemisinin-based combination therapies ACTs. Despite the recognition of widespread chloroquine resistance in Africa, countries were reluctant to change treatment policy. In 1993, Malawi was the first African nation to change the first-line therapy from chloroquine to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine SP owing to high rates of chloroquine treatment failure. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated 216 million infections and 445,000 deaths in 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2017. Occasionally, transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, nosocomially, or from mother to fetus. Chloroquine resistance countries Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax a., Return of chloroquine sensitivity to Africa? Surveillance. Chloroquine trade name generic nameHydroxychloroquine yellow skinPlaquenil steroidsPlaquenil and liver problems These interactive maps, based on the WHO global antimalarial drug efficacy database, provide a visual overview of therapeutic efficacy study results, according to malaria species, antimalarial treatment, year and geographic location. WHO Antimalarial drug efficacy maps. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa key lessons for the.. Drug Resistance in the Malaria-Endemic World - CDC. Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. Occasionally it is used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus. Parasites carrying chloroquine-resistant genotypes have been increasing in recent years 8. Other than these examples, little is known about longitudinal pat-terns of chloroquine resistance in African countries. Moreover, the relationship between objective measure-ments of drug pressure and trends in chloroquine sus- Between 19 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa. Despite the intensification of resistance during the last 2 decades, chloroquine remains in 2000 the first-line treatment for malaria in most of these countries. Here we review published data on the public health impact of antimalarial drug resistance in Africa. These.