Conceptual illustration of effect of drug distribution into tissue space on V: Consider 100 mg of a drug is added to 1 L of water in a beaker under two circumstances and the liquid is sampled for drug concentration (C). , also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.) is possible, and would indicate that the drug is highly distributed into tissue. Plaquenil bone pain Hydroxychloroquine sulfatr interactions Plaquenil making hair fall out Plaquenil cut in half The drug has an apparent volume of distribution of 116-285 L/kg in healthy adults. Animal studies indicate that concn of chloroquine in liver, spleen, kidney, and lung are at least 200-700 times higher than those in plasma, and concentration of the drug in brain and spinal cord are at least 10-30 times higher than those in plasma. For example, if 1000 mg of a drug is given and the subsequent plasma concentration is 10 mg/L, that 1000 mg seems to be distributed in 100 L dose/volume = concentration; 1000 mg/ x L = 10 mg/L; therefore, x= 1000 mg/10 mg/L = 100 L. Volume of distribution has nothing to do with the actual volume of the body or its fluid compartments but rather involves the distribution of the drug within the body. For a drug that is highly tissue-bound, very little drug remains in the circulation; thus, plasma concentration is low and volume of distribution is high. Volume of distribution may be increased by kidney failure (due to fluid retention) and liver failure (due to altered body fluid and plasma protein binding). The initial volume of distribution describes blood concentrations prior to attaining the apparent volume of distribution and uses the same formula. In rough terms, drugs with a high lipid solubility (non-polar drugs), low rates of ionization, or low plasma protein binding capabilities have higher volumes of distribution than drugs which are more polar, more highly ionized or exhibit high plasma protein binding in the body's environment. Volume of distribution of chloroquine Volume of distribution - Wikipedia, Drug Distribution to Tissues - Clinical Pharmacology. Plaquenil swollen lymph nodes It is defined as the volume in which the amount of drug would need to be uniformly distributed to produce the observed blood concentration. Volume of distribution may be increased by renal failure due to fluid retention and liver failure due to altered body fluid and plasma protein binding. VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION. Drug Distribution to Tissues - Clinical Pharmacology - Merck Manuals.. Volume of distribution Deranged Physiology. Dec 23, 2012 It therefore easily traverses other tissues and has a large volume of distribution 2100 L. Chloroquine is even more hydrophobic and has one of the highest volumes of distribution of any approved drug 12950 L! This means that, if you take chloroquine, most of the drug is found not in the blood but in tissues like fat. Chloroquine is extensively distributed with an enormous total apparent volume of distribution Vd more than 100 L/kg, and a terminal elimination half-life of 1 to 2 months. As a consequence, distribution rather than elimination processes determine the blood concentration profile of chloroquine in patients with acute malaria. Warfarin distributes into a comparatively small apparent volume of distribution of approximately 0.14 L/kg. After speedy intravenous and oral administration of an aqueous solution, a distribution phase enduring 6 to 12 hours is separated. By using one compartment model, and supposing complete bioavailability.