It accumulates inside the acidic parts of the cell, including endosomes and lysosomes. This accumulation leads to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes that require an acidic p H, and prevents fusion of endosomes and lysosomes. TLR7/8-Mediated Activation of Human NK Cells Results in Accessory Cell-Dependent IFN- Production. Hydroxychloroquine originally used to treat Hydroxychloroquine side effects weight loss Methylprednisolone and hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine HCQ is a potent autophagy inhibitor and TLR9 inhibitor. It prevents lysosomal acidification, thereby interfering with a key step in the autophagic process. In cancer cells, HCQ treatment has been shown to cause increased apoptosis, tumor regression, and delay in tumor recurrence. Chloroquine diphosphate is an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptors TLRs. Chloroquine diphosphate is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory drug widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol. Before the administration of chloroquine, the patient had only a mild skin erythema in the irradiated area, which was consistent with the radiotherapy dose she had received. On day 3 of chloroquine therapy, she developed localized brisk bullous eruptions in the irradiated area, which developed into a patch of fulminant moist desquamation. Moreover, Chloroquine inhibits autophagy as it raises the lysosomal p H, which leads to inhibition of both fusion of autophagosome with lysosome and lysosomal protein degradation . Chloroquine is commonly used to study the role of endosomal acidification in cellular processes [2, 3], such as the signaling of intracellular TLRs. Chloroquine tlr9 inhibitor Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a., Chloroquine diphosphate Autophagy Inhibitor MedChemExpress Chloroquine protein synthesis Chloroquine enters the red blood cell by simple diffusion, inhibiting the parasite cell and digestive vacuole. Chloroquine then becomes protonated to CQ2+, as the digestive vacuole is known to be acidic pH 4.7; chloroquine then cannot leave by diffusion. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Chloroquine Side Effects Common, Severe, Long Term -. Chloroquine Indications, Side Effects, Warnings -. To confirm which phase of autophagy is affected by TLR9, we suppressed autophagy degradation using chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. After chloroquine treatment, we observed the expression and colocalization patterns of TLR9 and LC3II. Toll‑like receptor‑9 TLR9 is an intracellular DNA receptor that is widely expressed in breast and other cancers. We previously demonstrated that low tumor TLR9 expression upon diagnosis is associated with significantly shortened disease‑specific survival times in patients with triple‑negative breast cancer TNBC. Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus SARS-CoV. No effective prophylactic or post-exposure therapy is currently available. We report, however, that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells. These inhibitory effects are observed when the cells are treated with the drug either before or after exposure to the.